3. Answer the following

v. Give the similarities and differences in elements of 3d, 4d and 5d series.


The 3d, 4d, and 5d series of elements are part of the transition metals in the periodic table. They share certain similarities due to their position within the periodic table, but they also exhibit differences based on their atomic properties and chemical behavior. Here are some of the key similarities and differences:


  1. Position in the Periodic Table: Elements in the 3d, 4d, and 5d series are all transition metals, and they are located in the d-block of the periodic table.

  2. Valence Electrons: All these series have valence electrons primarily in their d orbitals. For example, elements in the 3d series have valence electrons primarily in the 3d orbitals, and so on.

  3. Formation of Colored Compounds: Transition metals in these series often form colored compounds due to the presence of partially filled d orbitals, which can undergo electronic transitions that absorb certain wavelengths of light, giving rise to color.

  4. Variable Oxidation States: Elements in these series can exhibit multiple oxidation states. They often have a range of oxidation states, which allows them to form a variety of compounds with different properties.


  1. Size and Atomic Radii: As you move from the 3d series to the 4d series and then to the 5d series, the atomic radii generally increase. This is because the principal quantum number (n) increases, leading to larger atomic sizes down the periodic table.

  2. Electron Filling: The 3d series starts filling its d orbitals in the 3rd energy level, while the 4d series begins filling in the 4th energy level, and the 5d series starts filling in the 5th energy level. This results in differences in the electron configurations and energy levels of these elements.

  3. Chemical Reactivity: Elements in the 3d series are generally more reactive than those in the 4d and 5d series. This is because the 3d series elements have a greater tendency to lose electrons to form positive ions (cations) compared to the 4d and 5d series.

  4. Number of Elements: The number of elements in each series varies. The 3d series consists of 10 elements (Scandium to Zinc), the 4d series includes 10 elements (Yttrium to Cadmium), and the 5d series consists of 10 elements (Hafnium to Mercury).

  5. Physical Properties: There are differences in physical properties such as melting points, boiling points, and densities among elements in these series, which are influenced by the filling of electron orbitals and the nature of their metallic bonding.

In summary, the 3d, 4d, and 5d series of elements share similarities as transition metals but exhibit differences in terms of atomic radii, electron filling, reactivity, and other properties due to their positions in the periodic table and the filling of their electron orbitals.